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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2019-09-25

      Three-dimensional evaluation of alveolar changes induced by nasoalveolar molding in infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate: A case-control study

      Merve Altay Burgaz , Derya Germec Cakan , and R. Burcu Nur Yılmaz

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe objectives of this study were to evaluate linear and volumetric alveolar changes induced by nasoalveolar molding (NAM) in infants with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compare the maxillary dimensions after NAM with the normal dimensions in infants without clefts.MethodsA total of 26 infants with UCLP treated by NAM (mean age before and after NAM: 14.20 ± 8.09 days and 118.16 ± 10.06 days, respectively) comprised the treatment group, while 26 infants without clefts (mean age: 115.81 ± 8.71 days) comprised the control group. Changes in the maxillary dimensions following NAM were measured on three-dimensional models using Mimics software, version 17.0.ResultsDuring NAM, there was a decrease in the cleft widths, maxillary arch depths, and rotation of the greater segment. While the anterior alveolar arch width exhibited a significant decrease, the posterior arch width was mostly maintained. There were no changes in the anterior vertical deviations of the alveolar segments. The alveolar crest lengths, arch circumference, and bilateral posterior volumetric measures exhibited an increase. After NAM, the anterior arch width was comparable between the treatment and control groups, whereas the posterior arch width and anterior vertical deviations were greater in the treatment group than in the control group. The maxillary arch depths, alveolar crest lengths, and maxillary volumes were smaller in the NAM group than in the control group.ConclusionsDuring NAM in infants with UCLP, the cleft width and anteroposterior and transverse alveolar dimensions exhibited a decrease while the vertical dimensions were maintained. Compared with infants without clefts, those with UCLP treated by NAM exhibited sagittal and vertical alveolar growth deficiencies and tissue insufficiency.

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    • Original Article l 2019-07-25

      Comparison of tooth movement and biological response in corticotomy and micro-osteoperforation in rabbits

      Junghan Kim , Yoon-Ah Kook , Mohamed Bayome, Jae Hyun Park, Won Lee, Hojae Choi, and Noha H. Abbas

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of tooth movement and histologic changes with different corticotomy designs and micro-osteoperforation in rabbits.MethodsThe sample consisted of 24 rabbits divided into three experimental groups (triangular corticotomy [TC] and indentation corticotomy [IC] with flap, and flapless micro-osteoperforations [MP]) and a control. A traction force of 100 cN was applied by connecting the first premolars to the incisors. The amount of tooth movement was measured. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences in tooth movement between the groups. Micro-computed tomography, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) analysis were performed. Analysis of variance was applied to assess differences in TRAP-positive osteoclast count between the groups.ResultsThe amount of tooth movement increased by 46.5% and 32.0% in the IC and MP groups, respectively, while the bone fraction analysis showed 69.7% and 8.5% less mineralization compared to the control. There were no significant intergroup differences in the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts.ConclusionsThe micro-osteoperforation group showed no significant differences in the amount of tooth movement compared to the corticotomy groups, nor in the TRAP-positive osteoclast count compared to both corticotomy groups and control.

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    • Original Article l 2019-09-25

      Predisposing factors for external apical root resorption associated with orthodontic treatment

      Luciana Quintanilha Pires Fernandes , Natália Couto Figueiredo, Carina Cristina Montalvany Antonucci, Elizabeth Maria Bastos Lages, Ildeu Andrade, Jr, and Jonas Capelli Junior

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study aimed to identify possible risk factors for external apical root resorption (EARR) in the maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment.MethodsThe root length of 2,173 maxillary incisors was measured on periapical radiographs of 564 patients who received orthodontic treatment. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate intraexaminer and interexaminer reproducibility. Multiple binary logistic regression was used to determine the association between EARR and various factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported.ResultsThe risk of developing EARR was 70% higher in orthodontic treatment with maxillary premolar extraction (p = 0.004), 58% higher in patients with increased overjet (p = 0.012), 41% lower in two-phase orthodontic treatment (p = 0.037), and 33% lower in patients with deep bite (p = 0.039). The lateral incisors were 54% more likely to develop EARR (p < 0.001), dilacerated roots were 2.26 times more likely to develop EARR (p < 0.001), and for each additional millimeter of root length, the risk of EARR increased by 29% (p < 0.001).ConclusionsThe potential risk factors for EARR after orthodontic treatment included treatment with maxillary premolar extraction, increased overjet at the beginning of treatment, and dilacerated roots.

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    • Original Article l 2019-05-25

      Investigation of the association between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction in the South Korean population

      Hye-Young Sim , Hee-Sun Kim, Da-Un Jung, Ho Lee, Yoon-Sic Han, Kyungdo Han, and Kyoung-In Yun

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study investigated the relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in South Korean population.MethodsThis study obtained data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The final sample size was 5,567 participants who were ≥ 19 years of age. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD.ResultsParticipants who underwent orthodontic treatment showed higher educational level, lower body mass index, reduced chewing difficulty, and reduced speaking difficulty. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for orthodontic treatment and TMD were 1.614 (1.189–2.190), 1.573 (1.162–2.129) and 1.612 (1.182–2.196) after adjusting for age, sex and psychosocial factors. Adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs for orthodontic treatment and clicking were 1.778 (1.289–2.454), 1.742 (1.265–2.400) and 1.770 (1.280–2.449) after adjusting for confounding factors. However, temporomandibular joint pain and functional impairment was not associated with orthodontic treatment.ConclusionsTemporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction was not associated with orthodontic treatment.

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    • Original Article l 2019-09-25

      Evaluation of skeletal maturity in the cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist in relation to vertical facial types

      Ye-Seul Lee , Sung-Hwan Choi, Kyung-Ho Kim, and Chung-Ju Hwang

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo evaluate differences in skeletal maturity in relation to vertical facial types and to compare differences in the skeletal maturity of the cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist in females.MethodsThis study included 59 females aged 7 to 9 years with skeletal Class I malocclusion. The participants were categorized into three groups (low, normal, and high) according to the mandibular plane angle. Skeletal maturity was measured using skeletal maturity indicators (SMIs) and the Tanner–Whitehouse III (TW3) method on hand-wrist radiographs and by using cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMIs) on lateral cephalometric radiographs.ResultsThe SMI was higher in the high-angle group than in the low-angle group (p = 0.014). The median TW3 bone age was 11.4 months higher in the high-angle group than in the low-angle group (p = 0.032). There was no significant difference in CVMI among the three groups. Skeletal maturity showed a weakly positive correlation with the mandibular plane angle (SMI, r = 0.391; TW3, r = 0.333; CVMI, r = 0.259).ConclusionsThe skeletal maturity of the hand-wrist in females with a high mandibular plane angle was higher than that in females with a low mandibular plane angle. Obtaining additional hand-wrist radiographs may facilitate evaluation of skeletal maturity of females. In females with a high mandibular angle, the time to commence orthodontic treatment may be earlier than that in females with a low mandibular angle.

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    • Original Article l 2019-07-25

      Effects of reversing the coiling direction on the force-deflection characteristics of nickel-titanium closed-coil springs

      Hwan-Hyung Park , Suk-Hwan Jung, Juil Yoon, Kwang Koo Jee, Jun Hyun Han , and Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of reversing the coiling direction of nickeltitanium closed-coil springs (NiTi-CCSs) on the force-deflection characteristics.MethodsThe samples consisted of two commercially available conventional NiTi-CCS groups and two reverse-wound NiTi-CCS groups (Ormco-Conventional vs. Ormco-Reverse; GAC-Conventional vs. GAC-Reverse; n = 20 per group). The reverse-wound NiTi-CCSs were directly made from the corresponding conventional NiTi-CCSs by reversing the coiling direction. Tensile tests were performed for each group in a temperature-controlled acrylic chamber (37 ± 1℃). After measuring the force level, the range of the deactivation force plateau (DFP) and the amount of mechanical hysteresis (MH), statistical analyses were performed.ResultsThe Ormco-Reverse group exhibited a significant shift of the DFP end point toward the origin point (2.3 to 0.6 mm), an increase in the force level (1.2 to 1.3 N) and amount of MH (1.0 to 1.5 N) compared to the Ormco-Conventional group (all p < 0.001), which indicated that force could be constantly maintained until the end of the deactivation curve. In contrast, the GAC-Reverse group exhibited a significant shift of the DFP-end point away from the origin point (0.2 to 3.3 mm), a decrease in the force level (1.1 to 0.9 N) and amount of MH (0.6 to 0.4 N) compared to the GAC-Conventional group (all p < 0.001), which may hinder the maintenance of force until the end of the deactivation curve.ConclusionsThe two commercially available NiTi-CCS groups exhibited different patterns of change in the force-deflection characteristics when the coiling direction was reversed.

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    • Original Article l 2020-01-25

      The effect of cetirizine, a histamine 1 receptor antagonist, on bone remodeling after calvarial suture expansion

      Soonshin Hwang, Chooryung J. Chung, Yoon Jeong Choi, Taeyeon Kim, and Kyung-Ho Kim

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cetirizine, a histamine 1 receptor antagonist, on bone remodeling after calvarial suture expansion.MethodsSixty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups; the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-injected no expansion group, cetirizine-injected no expansion group, PBS-injected expansion group, and cetirizine-injected expansion group, and were observed at 7, 14, and 28 days. Five rats per group were examined at each observation day. Daily injections of cetirizine or PBS were administered to the relevant groups starting 2 weeks prior to expander insertion. A rapid expander was inserted in the calvarial bone to deliver 100 cN of force to the parietal suture. The specimens were prepared for hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Suture opening and bone regeneration were evaluated using microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometric analysis. Serum blood levels of osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) were also evaluated.ResultsTRAP-positive cell counts and CTX levels decreased while osteocalcin levels increased in the cetirizine-injected expansion group at observation day 28. In the expansion groups, the mineralized area gradually increased throughout the observation period. At day 28, the cetirizine-injected expansion group showed greater bone volume density, greater mineralized area, and narrower average suture width than did the PBS-injected expansion group.ConclusionsCetirizine injection facilitated bone formation after suture expansion, mostly by suppressing osteoclastic activity. Histamine 1 receptor antagonists may aid in bone formation after calvarial suture expansion in the rat model.

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    • Original Article l 2019-11-25

      The influence of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma on accelerated orthodontic tooth movement in rabbits

      Theerasak Nakornnoi, Chidchanok Leethanakul, and Bancha Samruajbenjakun

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo determine the effects of a local injection of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) on orthodontic tooth movement in rabbits.MethodsTwenty-three male New Zealand white rabbits were included in a split-mouth design. Tooth movement with a 100-g nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was performed on the maxillary first premolars. L-PRP was injected submucosally at the buccal and lingual areas of the first premolar in one random side of the maxilla and the other side served as the control and received normal saline. The amount of tooth movement was assessed on three-dimensional digital models on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Histological findings and osteoclast numbers were examined on day 0 as the baseline and on days 7, 14, and 28.ResultsThe L-PRP group showed significantly greater cumulative tooth movement at all observed periods. However, a significantly higher rate of tooth movement was observed only on days 0–7 and 7–14. The osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in the L-PRP group on days 7 and 14.ConclusionsLocal injection of L-PRP resulted in a transient increase in the rate of tooth movement and higher osteoclast numbers.

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    • Original Article l 2019-07-25

      Effectiveness of caries-preventing agents on initial carious lesions within the scope of orthodontic therapy

      Kyung-Jin Park , Tessa Kroker, Uwe Groß, Ortrud Zimmermann, Felix Krause, Rainer Haak, and Dirk Ziebolz

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of three different caries-preventing agents on artificial caries in a Streptococcus mutans-based caries model.MethodsSixty-five caries-free human molar enamel blocks were treated with a demineralization solution and a remineralization solution. The specimens were assigned to the following groups according to the caries-protective product applied: group A, chlorhexidine varnish; group B, fluoride-releasing chemically cured sealant; group C, fluoride-releasing lightcured sealant; group D, positive control (specimens that were subjected to de- and remineralization cycles without treatment with any caries-protective agents); and group E, negative control (specimens that were not subjected to de- and remineralization cycles). Samples in groups A–D were stored in demineralization solution with S. mutans and thereafter in artificial saliva. This procedure was performed for 30 days. Average fluorescence loss (ΔF) and surface size of the lesions were measured using quantitative light-induced fluorescence at baseline and on the 7th, 14th, and 30th days.ResultsAfter 30 days, group A demonstrated a significant increase in ΔF and the surface size of the lesions, no significant difference in comparison with the positive control group, and a significant difference in comparison with the negative control group. Group B showed no significant changes in both parameters at any of the measurement points. While group C showed increased ΔF after 14 days, no significant fluorescence change was observed after 30 days.ConclusionsBoth fluoride-releasing sealants (chemically or light-cured) show anti-cariogenic effects, but the use of chlorhexidine varnish for the purpose of caries protection needs to be reconsidered.

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    • Original Article l 2019-09-25

      Application of the foramina of the trigeminal nerve as landmarks for analysis of craniofacial morphology

      Ba-Da Lim , Dong-Soon Choi , Insan Jang and Bong-Kuen Cha

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop new parameters based on the foramina of the trigeminal nerve and to compare them with the conventional cephalometric parameters in different facial skeletal types.MethodsCone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and cephalograms from 147 adult patients (57 males and 90 females; mean age, 26.1 years) were categorized as Class I (1° < ANB < 3°), Class II (ANB > 5°), and Class III (ANB < −1°). Seven foramina in the craniofacial area—foramen rotundum (Rot), foramen ovale (Ov), infraorbital foramen, greater palatine foramen, incisive foramen (IF), mandibular foramen (MDF), and mental foramen (MTF)—were identified in the CBCT images. Various linear, angular, and ratio parameters were compared between the groups by using the foramina, and the relationship between the new parameters and the conventional cephalometric parameters was assessed.ResultsThe distances between the foramina in the cranial base did not differ among the three groups. However, the Rot-IF length was shorter in female Class III patients, while the Ov-MTF length, MDF-MTF length, and Ov-MDF length were shorter in Class II patients than in Class III patients of both sexes. The MDF-MTF/FH plane angle was larger in Class II patients than in Class III patients of both sexes. Most parameters showed moderate to high correlations, but the Ov-MDF-MTF angle showed a relatively low correlation with the gonial angle.ConclusionsThe foramina of the trigeminal nerve can be used to supplement assessments based on the conventional skeletal landmarks on CBCT images.

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Journal Info.

March, 2021
Vol.51 No.2

Frequency: 6 times

Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.476
    2018 IF

  • 1.523
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists