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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2019-09-25

      Effectiveness of anchorage with temporary anchorage devices during anterior maxillary tooth retraction: A randomized clinical trial

      Stéphane Barthélemi , Alban Desoutter, Fatoumata Souaré and Frédéric Cuisinier

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study evaluated the efficiency of anchorage provided by temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in maxillary bicuspid extraction cases during retraction of the anterior teeth using a fixed appliance.MethodsPatients aged 12 to 50 years with malocclusion for which bilateral first or second maxillary bicuspid extractions were indicated were included in the study and randomly allocated to the TAD or control groups. Retraction of the anterior teeth was achieved using skeletal anchorage in the TAD group and conventional dental anchorage in the control group. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after alignment of teeth, and a second CT scan was performed at the end of extraction space closure in both groups. A three-dimensional superimposition was performed to visualize and quantify the maxillary first molar movement during the retraction phase, which was the primary outcome, and the stability of TAD movement, which served as the secondary outcome.ResultsThirty-four patients (17 in each group) underwent the final analysis. The two groups showed a significant difference in the movement of the first maxillary molars, with less significant anchorage loss in the TAD group than that in the control group. In addition, TAD movement showed only a slight mesial movement on the labial side. On the palatal side, the mesial TAD movement was greater.ConclusionsIn comparison with conventional dental anchorage, TADs can be considered an efficient source of anchorage during retraction of maxillary anterior teeth. TADs remain stable when correctly placed in the bone during the anterior tooth retraction phase.

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    • Original Article l 2021-01-25

      The global distribution of permanent canine hypodontia: A systematic review

      Saritha Sivarajan , Shani Ann Mani, Jacob John, Mona M. Salah Fayed, Yoon-Ah Kook, Mang Chek Wey

      Abstract : Objective: To systematically review studies on canine agenesis prevalence in different populations and continents, based on the jaw, sex, location, and associated dental anomalies. Methods: Electronic and hand searches of English literature in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGrey, and Science Direct were conducted, and the authors were contacted when necessary. Observational studies (population-based, hospital/clinic-based, and cross-sectional) were included. For study appraisal and synthesis, duplicate selection was performed independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist, with main outcome of prevalence of canine agenesis. Results: The global population prevalence of canine agenesis was 0.30% (0.0−4.7%), highest in Asia (0.54%), followed by Africa (0.33%), and the least in Europe and South America (0.19% in both continents). Canine agenesis was more common in the maxilla (88.57%), followed by both maxilla and mandible (8.57%), and the least common was mandible-only presentation (2.86%). The condition was more common in females (female:male ratio = 1.23), except in Asia (female:male ratio = 0.88) and Africa (female:male ratio = 1). In Asia, unilateral agenesis was almost twice as prevalent as bilateral, but in Europe, the bilateral form was more common. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of canine agenesis is 0.30%, with the highest prevalence in Asia, followed by Africa, Europe, and South America. The condition is more common in the maxilla than the mandible, and in females than males (except in Asia and Africa), with unilateral agenesis being more common in Asia and the bilateral form showing a greater prevalence in Europe.

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    • Original Article l 2021-01-15

      Cephalometric Predictors of Future need for Orthognathic Surgery in Korean Patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Despite Long-term Use of Facemask with Miniplate

      Sang-Hun Yu , Seung-Hak Baek, Jin-Young Choi, Jong-Ho Lee, Sukwha Kim, Sung-Woon On

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the cephalometric predictors of the future need for orthognathic surgery in Korean patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) despite long-term use of facemask with miniplate (FMMP). Methods: The sample consisted of 53 UCLP patients treated by a single orthodontist using an identical protocol. Lateral cephalograms were taken before commencement of FMMP therapy (T0; mean age, 10.45 years), after FMMP therapy (T1; mean age, 14.72 years), and at follow-up (T2; mean age, 18.68 years). Twenty-eight cephalometric variables were measured. At T2 stage, the subjects were divided into FMMP-Nonsurgery (n = 33, 62.3%) and FMMP-Surgery (n = 20, 37.7%) groups according to cephalometric criteria (point A-nasion-point B [ANB] < –3°; Wits-appraisal < –5 mm; and Harvold unit difference [HUD] > 34 mm for FMMP-Surgery group). Statistical analyses including discrimination analysis were performed. Results: In FMMP-Surgery group, the forward position of the mandible at T0 stage was maintained throughout the whole stages and Class III relationship worsened with significant growth of the mandibular body and ramus and counterclockwise rotation of the maxilla and mandible at the T1 and T2 stages. Six cephalometric variables at T0 stage including ANB, anteroposterior dysplasia indicator, Wits-appraisal, mandibular body length, HUD, and overjet were selected as effective predictors of the future need for surgical intervention to correct sagittal skeletal discrepancies. Conclusions: Despite long-term use of FMMP therapy, 37.7% of UCLP patients became candidates for orthognathic surgery. Therefore, differential diagnosis is necessary to predict the future need for orthognathic surgery at early age.

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    • Case Report l 2020-03-25

      Growth observation and orthodontic treatment of a hemifacial microsomia patient treated with distraction osteogenesis

      Nam Hyung Chung, So Jin Yang, Jae Yoen Kang, Young-Mi Jeon, and Jong Ghee Kim

      Abstract : Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) patients may experience emotional withdrawal during their growth period due to their abnormal facial appearance. Distraction osteogenesis at an early age to improve their appearance can encourage these patients. Some abnormalities of the affected side can be overcome by distraction osteogenesis at an early age. However, differences in the growth rate between the affected and unaffected sides during the rest of the growth period are inevitable due to the characteristics of HFM. Therefore, re-evaluation should be performed after completion of growth in order to achieve stable occlusion through either orthognathic surgery or camouflage orthodontic treatment. An eight-year-old patient visited the clinic exhibiting features of HFM with slight mandibular involvement. He received phase I treatment with distraction osteogenesis and a functional appliance. Distraction osteogenesis was performed at the right ramus, which resulted in an open bite at the right posterior dentition. After distraction osteogenesis, a functional appliance and partial fixed appliance were used to achieve extrusion of the affected posterior dentition and settlement of the occlusion adjustment on the unaffected posterior dentition. The patient visited the clinic regularly for follow-up assessments, and at the age of 20 years, he showed facial asymmetry of the mandible, which had deviated to the right side. He received orthodontic treatment to improve the occlusion of his posterior dentition after the growth period. Without orthognathic surgery, stable occlusion and a satisfactory facial appearance were obtained through camouflage orthodontic treatment.

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    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Full-arch accuracy of five intraoral scanners: In vivo analysis of trueness and precision

      Miran Kwon , Youngmok Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, MyungSu Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim , Minho Chang

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the trueness and precision of full-arch scans acquired using five intraoral scanners and investigate the factors associated with the dimensional accuracy of the intraoral scan data. Methods: Nine adult participants (mean age, 34.3 ± 8.3 years) were recruited. Four zirconium spheres (Ø 6 mm) were bonded to the canines and the molars. Following acquisition of reference scans using an industrial-grade scanner, five intraoral scanners, namely i500, CS3600, Trios 3, iTero, and CEREC Omnicam, were used to scan the arches. Linear distances between the four reference spheres were automatically calculated, and linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the trueness and precision of the intraoral scan data among the different scanners. Results: The absolute mean trueness and precision values for all intraoral scanners were 76.6 ± 79.3 and 56.6 ± 52.4 μm, respectively. The type of scanner and the measured linear distances had significant effects on the accuracy of the intraoral scan data. With regard to trueness, errors in the intermolar dimension and the distance from the canine to the contralateral molar were greater with Omnicam than with the other scanners. With regard to precision, the error in the linear distance from the canine to the molar in the same quadrant was greater with Omnicam and CS3600 than with the other scanners. Conclusions: The dimensional accuracy of intraoral scan data may differ significantly according to the type of scanner, with the amount of error in terms of trueness being clinically significant.

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    • Original Article l 2019-07-25

      Short-term changes in muscle activity and jaw movement patterns after orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III patients with facial asymmetry

      Kyung-A Kim , Hong-Sik Park, Soo-Yeon Lee, Su-Jung Kim, Seung-Hak Baek, and Hyo-Won Ahn

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo evaluate the short-term changes in masticatory muscle activity and mandibular movement patterns after orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III patients with facial asymmetry.MethodsTwenty-seven skeletal Class III adult patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of facial asymmetry: the experimental group (n = 17 [11 male and 6 female]; menton deviation ≥ 4 mm) and control group (n = 10 [4 male and 6 female]; menton deviation < 1.6 mm). Cephalography, electromyography (EMG) for the anterior temporalis (TA) and masseter muscles (MM), and mandibular movement (range of motion [ROM] and average chewing pattern [ACP]) were evaluated before (T0) and 7 to 8 months (T1) after the surgery.ResultsThere were no significant postoperative changes in the EMG potentials of the TA and MM in both groups, except in the anterior cotton roll biting test, in which the masticatory muscle activity had changed into an MM-dominant pattern postoperatively in both groups. In the experimental group, the amount of maximum opening, protrusion, and lateral excursion to the non-deviated side were significantly decreased. The turning point tended to be shorter and significantly moved medially during chewing in the non-deviated side in the experimental group.ConclusionsIn skeletal Class III patients with facial asymmetry, the EMG activity characteristics recovered to presurgical levels within 7 to 8 months after the surgery. Correction of the asymmetry caused limitation in jaw movement in terms of both ROM and ACP on the non-deviated side.

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    • Case Report l 2019-09-25

      Correction of Class III malocclusion with alternate rapid maxillary expansions and constrictions using a hybrid hyrax-mandibular miniplate combination and simultaneous orthodontic treatment: A case report

      Rosana Martínez-Smit, Juan Fernando Aristizabal, and Valfrido Antonio Pereira Filho

      Abstract : In this report, we describe the successful use of alternate rapid maxillary expansions and constrictions with a hybrid hyrax-mandibular miniplate combination and simultaneous orthodontic treatment for the management of severe Class III malocclusion due to maxillary hypoplasia in an 11-year-old girl. The devices were removed after 20 months of treatment, and the family was instructed about a careful control and retention program that should be followed in accordance with the patient's growth. The final result included the correction of Class III malocclusion with adequate function and excellent facial esthetics, which restored the patient's self-esteem and provided personal motivation. The outcomes showed good stability after 24 months of retention. The decrease in the duration of active treatment is the most important finding from the present case. Considering that facial esthetics in adolescence is a determining factor for the development of a personality and interpersonal relationships, we recommend the use of this protocol for growing patients, who will exhibit not only an improved physical appearance but also a better quality of life.

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    • Case Report l 2020-01-25

      Comprehensive orthodontic treatment of a young girl with an odontogenic keratocyst and impacted teeth in the mandible

      Won-Kyeong Baik, Hyoung-Seon Baik, and Sung-Hwan Choi

      Abstract : Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are one of the most aggressive cysts in the oral and maxillofacial area because of their high recurrence rate and infiltrative behavior. In growing patients with OKCs, a radical treatment approach might cause numerous complications, including the disturbance of jaw growth and loss of the involved tooth. This case report describes successful comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with marsupialization of the cyst in a young girl who exhibited an OKC with impacted teeth. The 10-year-old girl presented with an OKC extending from the mandibular symphysis through the left mandibular body, with ectopic impaction of the mandibular left canine and first premolar, as well as congenitally missing bilateral mandibular second premolars. Interestingly, spontaneous improvement of the positions of the ectopic impacted teeth, along with a reduction in the size of the cyst, occurred during marsupialization. The sequential use of removable and fixed appliances enabled orthodontic traction of the impacted teeth. The treatment outcome was stable at 2.5 years after the end of the treatment. We speculate that comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with marsupialization can be an effective treatment strategy for patients with OKCs, especially when they are encountered in young, growing patients with impacted teeth.

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    • Original Article l 2019-05-25

      Relationship between the maxillofacial skeletal pattern and the morphology of the mandibular symphysis: Structural equation modeling

      Mi So Ahn , Sang Min Shin, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Koutaro Maki, Te-Ju Wu, Ching-Chang Ko, and Yong-Il Kim

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the facial skeletal patterns and the shape of the mandibular symphysis in adults with malocclusion by using a structural equation model (SEM).MethodsNinety adults who had malocclusion and had records of facial skeletal measurements performed using cone-beam computed tomography were selected for this study. The skeletal measurements were classified into three groups (vertical, anteroposterior, and transverse). Cross-sectional images of the mandibular symphysis were analyzed using generalized Procrustes and principal component (PC) analyses. A SEM was constructed after the factors were extracted via factor analysis.ResultsTwo factors were extracted from the transverse, vertical, and anteroposterior skeletal measurements. Latent variables were extracted for each factor. PC1, PC2, and PC3 were selected to analyze the variations of the mandibular symphyseal shape. The SEM was constructed using the skeletal variables, PCs, and latent variables. The SEM showed that the vertical latent variable exerted the most influence on the mandibular symphyseal shape.ConclusionsThe relationship between the skeletal pattern and the mandibular symphysis was analyzed using a SEM, which showed that the vertical facial skeletal pattern had the highest effect on the shape of the mandibular symphysis.

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    • Original Article l 2019-11-25

      Bracket bonding to polymethylmethacrylate-based materials for computer-aided design/manufacture of temporary restorations: Influence of mechanical treatment and chemical treatment with universal adhesives

      Cecilia Goracci, Mutlu Özcan, Lorenzo Franchi, Giuseppe Di Bello, Chris Louca, and Alessandro Vichi

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo assess shear bond strength and failure mode (Adhesive Remnant Index, ARI) of orthodontic brackets bonded to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks for computer-aided design/manufacture (CAD/CAM) fabrication of temporary restorations, following substrate chemical or mechanical treatment.MethodsTwo types of PMMA blocks were tested: CAD-Temp® (VITA) and Telio® CAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent). The substrate was roughened with 320-grit sandpaper, simulating a fine-grit diamond bur. Two universal adhesives, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SU) and Assure Plus (AP), and a conventional adhesive, Transbond XT Primer (XTP; control), were used in combination with Transbond XT Paste to bond the brackets. Six experimental groups were formed: (1) CADTemp®/SU; (2) CAD-Temp®/AP; (3) CAD-Temp®/XTP; (4) Telio® CAD/SU; (5) Telio® CAD/AP; (6) Telio® CAD/XTP. Shear bond strength and ARI were assessed. On 1 extra block for each PMMA-based material surfaces were roughened with 180-grit sandpaper, simulating a normal/medium-grit (100 mm) diamond bur, and brackets were bonded. Shear bond strengths and ARI scores were compared with those of groups 3, 6.ResultsOn CAD-Temp® significantly higher bracket bond strengths than on Telio® CAD were recorded. With XTP significantly lower levels of adhesion were reached than using SU or AP. Roughening with a coarser bur resulted in a significant increase in adhesion.ConclusionsBracket bonding to CAD/CAM PMMA can be promoted by grinding the substrate with a normal/medium-grit bur or by coating the intact surface with universal adhesives. With appropriate pretreatments, bracket adhesion to CAD/CAM PMMA temporary restorations can be enhanced to clinically satisfactory levels.

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Journal Info.

March, 2021
Vol.51 No.2

Frequency: 6 times

Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.476
    2018 IF

  • 1.523
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists